Genesis: A Common Baptist Battleground, Part 1. The Elliott Controversy

This post is intended to serve as the first in a series that looks at prevailing points of contention among Southern Baptists. If there is a particular point of controversy that you would like to see addressed, scroll down to the bottom and leave a comment.

In 1961, a popular, young professor at Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary named Ralph Elliott released a book published by Broadman Press. In it, he took a progressive view on the book of Genesis and demonstrated an acceptance of higher criticism.

He viewed the biblical narratives in a skeptical light, writing, “We must learn to think of the stories of Genesis—the creation, the fall, Noah’s ark, the tower of Babel—in the same way as we think of the parables of Jesus; they are profoundly symbolical stories, which aren’t to be taken as literally true” (emphasis mine).

Think through that carefully. Stories from the Old Testament—stories to which the New Testament refers to as historical—Elliott declared to be taken only symbolically.

He determined that the Hebrew word “Adam,” was not a personal name in the first chapters of Genesis, but rather “must have meant ‘mankind.’ . . . In all probability, the Priestly writer simply exaggerate the ages in order to show the glory of an ancient civilization.”

Elliott had embraced the documentary hypothesis—the view that it was unreasonable to think that Moses wrote the Pentateuch, but rather four redactors (the Jahwist, the Elohist, the Deuteronomist, and the Priestly sources—categorized as JEDP) had pieced together the text, all the while integrating their own unique writing methods, agendas, and personalities into the text. While this interpretation was pervasive among theological moderates and liberals, it has been almost universally relegated to the dustbin of dismissed and abandoned biblical interpretation.

Perhaps most disconcerting, Elliott argued that in Genesis 22, Abraham didn’t really hear God, for God would never have commanded Abraham to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice (contra Gen 22:2). Instead, “What had been a thought of meditation gripped the inner being of Abraham until he thought he heard it as a clear call from God.”

Unsurprisingly, the book was not received well by a large number of Southern Baptists. K. Owen White wrote a scathing review, titled “Death in the Pot,” which was published and reprinted in Baptist newspapers across the country. White’s critique served to notify Southern Baptists not only that which was deemed acceptable by Broadman Press and the Sunday School Board at that time, but what was being taught in Southern Baptist seminaries.

Rebutting the common argument that seminary professors should be granted academic freedom—the freedom to pursue the truth wherever it may lead without fear of reprisal—White wrote, “let it be said that we gladly grant any man the right to believe what he wants to—but, we do not grant him the right to believe and express views in conflict with our historic position concerning the Bible as the Word of God while he is teaching in one of our schools, built and supported by Baptist funds.”

In 1962, White took to the convention floor in San Francisco and made a motion that “the messengers of the Convention, by standing vote, reaffirm their faith in the entire Bible as the authoritative, authentic, infallible Word of God.” His motion was unanimously adopted.

Further, at White’s behest, the messengers approved a motion (despite significant opposition), stating,

That we express our undivided and unchanging objection to the dissemination of theological views in any of our seminaries which would undermine such faith in the historical accuracy and doctrinal integrity of the Bible, and that we courteously request the trustees and administrative officers of our institutions and other agencies to take such steps as shall be necessary to remedy at once those situations here such views now threaten our historic position.

The messengers’ concern did not rest merely in the historic Baptist position. They also approved a recommendation for the president of the convention, Herschel Hobbs, to gather presidents of their respective state conventions for the purpose of presenting a statement similar to that of the Baptist Faith and Message adopted in 1925. The intention of such a statement was made explicit—to serve as guidelines to the various agencies of the Southern Baptist Convention.

Initially, a motion had been made by Ralph Powell naming Elliott and his book, which sought to “instruct the Sunday School Board to cease from publication and printing the book, The Message of Genesis, by Dr. Elliott, and that they furthermore recall from all sales this book which contradicts Baptist conviction.” (He withdrew his motion at the request of Earl Harding before messengers could vote on it.)*

The die had been cast and the lines drawn.

*Author’s note: This is fascinating history to me. The annuals of SBC yearly meetings are not intended to provide commentary on the events of the meetings, but instead, are written as a sort of play-by-play. This motion and subsequent withdrawal have piqued my attention. What this a power move from the platform? Was it something utterly innocuous? I’m planning to look into this a bit further, but would be happy to be relieved of the research if you already know. Drop it in the comments.

Defining Text-Driven Preaching

As a graduate of Southwestern Seminary, I have been asked several times to provide a definition of text-driven preaching, especially what distinguishes it from expositional, or expository preaching. Generally, my answer to this question is simple:

Text-Driven Preaching is the Purest Form of Exposition

Those aren’t my words, though. That is the explanation given by David L. Allen, who wrote the book on text-driven preaching and serves as the first dean of the Southwestern School of Preaching.

But even that needs to be examined. What does that mean?

The Meaning of Words

There was once a time when theological Conservatives in the Southern Baptist Convention had no need for the term inerrancy because terms like infallibility and authority sufficed to communicate the belief that the Scripture was genuinely true and without error. But those terms became so misapplied and misused that the intended meaning of their use became altogether distinct from genuine truth without error. This created the need for the term inerrancy—it made clear that which other terms once included.

A similar situation has developed in preaching.

There once was a time when there was no need for the descriptor text-driven. Terms such as expository preaching and exposition sufficed to communicate the belief that the sermon should expose and explain the text. But those terms have become so misapplied and misused that their intended meaning has become murky. And when expository preaching describes all preaching, it in fact does not describe any preaching. And this state of things has created the need for the term text-driven—it makes clear that which other terms once included.

The Meaning of Text-Driven

In text-driven preaching, the text itself provides the substance, the shape, and the spirit of the sermon. (Let this be a reminder that if you allow Southern Baptists to define a term, the definition will be alliterated.) The substance, or the message, of the sermon is that which is conveyed in the text. The sermon is not a collection of verses on a topic nor is it a number of observations stemming from the text. Instead, the sermon explains the message of the text to the congregation.

The text also provides the shape, or form, of the sermon. Rather than determining the main idea of the text and then discerning what form of sermon might best communicate that idea, those committed to text-driven preaching maintain that the manner in which God delivered that main idea matters—that the text’s meaning is inseparable from its packaging. So text-driven preachers shape their sermons in the manner corresponding with the shape of the text itself.

Finally, the text provides the spirit of the sermon. The sermon should not be a dry lecture about God’s Word, but should convey the same emotions evident in the text itself. At times that will mean warning. Other times that means preaching through genuine tears and heartbreak.

So what is text-driven preaching?

It is the purest form of exposition.

To explore text-driven preaching further, check out these titles:

Andrew Fuller’s Answer to the Decline of SBC Baptisms

It has been widely reported that Southern Baptist churches are on a downward trend. Many have voiced their opinions as to the solution to our decline, and yet, few are as poignant and direct as the 18th-century pastor-theologian, Andrew Fuller. In a diary entry, dated September 30, 1785, Fuller wrote of a meeting among ministers:

A question was discussed, to the following purport:—To what causes in ministers may much of their want of success be imputed? The answer turned chiefly upon the want of personal religion; particularly the neglect of close dealing with God in closet prayer. Jer. x 21, was here referred to, ‘Their pastors are become brutish, and have not sought the Lord; therefore they shall not prosper, and their flocks shall be scattered.’ Another reason assigned was the want of reading and studying the Scriptures more as Christians, for the edification of our own souls. We are too apt to study them namely to find out something to say to others, without living upon the truth ourselves. If we eat not the book, before we deliver its contents to others, we may expect the Holy Spirit will not much accompany us. If we study the Scriptures as Christians, the more familiar we are with them, the more we shall feel their importance; but, if otherwise, our familiarity with the word will be like that of soldiers and doctors with death—it will wear away all sense of its importance from our minds. To enforce this sentiment, Prov. xxii. 17, 18, was referred to—‘Apply thine heart to knowledge—the words of the wise will be pleasant if thou keep them within thee; they shall withal be fitted in thy lips.’ To this might be added Psal. i. 2, 3. Another reason was, Our want of being emptied of self-sufficiency. In proportion as we lean upon our own gifts, or parts, or preparations, we slight the Holy Spirit; and no wonder that, being grieved, he should leave us to do our work alone. Besides, when this is the case, it is, humanly speaking, unsafe for God to prosper us, especially those ministers who possess considerable abilities.

Andrew Fuller, The Complete Works of Andrew Fuller, 1:47-48

He attributes the “want of success” in his day to:

  1. The lack of personal prayer
  2. The lack of personal devotion to the Word (reading and studying the Scriptures)
  3. The lack of humility (or, stated otherwise, the sin of pride)

As Southern Baptists consider our own “want of success,” perhaps it would be helpful to consider such a heart-check. It is likely that there are dozens of reasons that conversions have dropped in Southern Baptist churches and that many of them are beyond our control. But these three answers would appear to have some credence for us today.

Are we, pastors and laymen alike, devoted to God in prayer? Are we diving deeply into Scripture, seeking what the Lord would have of us before seeking what the Lord would have of them? Are we relying on our own man-made methods and systems and programs to reach the lost or are we relying on the power of the Holy Spirit to change hearts and lives?

Perhaps, Andrew Fuller has the answer to the decline of SBC baptisms after all.